The Hawk family of aircraft, manufactured by BAE Systems, has been made famous by the Red Arrows Royal Air Force Aerobatic Team. Since entering service with the Royal Air Force in 1976, over 800 Hawk aircraft have been delivered and it has been exported to Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Finland, Indonesia, Kenya, Malaysia, Oman, Saudi Arabia, South Korea, Switzerland, USA and Zimbabwe.
The Hawk has been developed in four configurations: the Hawk 50 series including the Goshawk T-45 for the US Navy; Hawk 60 series current production trainer aircraft; Hawk 100 advanced two-seat weapon systems trainer with ground attack capability; and Hawk 200 single-seat, multi-role combat aircraft
Hawk training aircraft variants and orders
A derivative of the Hawk 100, the mk 127/128 LIFT lead-in fighter is in service with the Royal Australian Air Force and the Canadian Air Force and has been ordered by South Africa, Bahrain and the UK. 18 Hawk 115 aircraft were delivered to the Nato flying training in Canada (NFTC) between July 2000 and 2001.
In March 2004, the Indian Air Force signed a contract for the purchase of 66 Hawk 132 (a variant of the Hawk 115) aircraft. The first 24 are being built by BAE in the UK. The remaining 42 are being built under license by Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd (HAL) in India. The first aircraft made its maiden flight in December 2006 and was delivered in November 2007.
The aircraft entered service with the Indian Air Force in February 2008. By August 2008, 14 Hawks had been delivered by BAE Systems, the rest are scheduled for delivery by December 2009. HAL delivered the first license-built Hawk in August 2008.
In June 2007, Finland announced the acquisition of 18 Hawk 66 jets from the Swiss Air Force, to add to the Finnish Air Force fleet of 49 Hawk 51 trainers.
Hawk 60 series
The Hawk 60, powered by an Adour mk861 turbofan engine, provides air combat manoeuvring and weapon conversion training. It is highly spin resistant, requiring full rudder to initiate and maintain a spin and recovering in one turn after centralising the flying controls. Stall characteristics are predictable and progressive.
Low-speed handling provides the student pilot with minimal trim changes when the flaps and gear are retracted or extended. Crosswinds of up to 30kt can be accommodated on aircraft take-off or landing with or without stores. The aircraft maintains positive control in all flight manoeuvres up to Mach 1.2.
Hawk 100 two-seat trainer aircraft
Hawk 100 is an advanced two-seat weapons systems trainer with enhanced ground attack capability. The aircraft provides fighter lead-in training and navigator and weapons systems operator training.
The nose of the Hawk 100 is re-profiled to accommodate additional sensors and avionics systems, including a forward-looking infrared (FLIR). The aircraft has seven hardpoints on the wings for weapon payloads. Short-range air-to-air missiles can be mounted on the wingtip missile launchers.
Hawk 200 single-seat multi-role combat aircraft
The Hawk 200 is a single-seat, lightweight multi-role combat aircraft for air defence and ground attack missions. On air defence missions, the Hawk 200 can attain two hours on patrol 100nm from base when fitted with underwing fuel tanks. In a close air support role, the Hawk 200 has a radius of action of over 100nm. For the interdiction role, Hawk 200 can deliver 2,000lb of ordnance at a range of nearly 300nm when fitted with external fuel tanks. The range can be extended by air-to-air refuelling.
Hawk 200 weapons
The Hawk 200 has 11 external store points with four underwing pylons, an under-fuselage pylon, and wingtip air-to-air missile stations. The range of external stores includes air-to-air missiles, a gunpod, rocket launchers, reconnaissance pod, retarded and free-fall bombs up to 1,000lb, runway cratering, anti-personnel and light armour bombs, cluster bombs, practice bomb and rocket carriers and external fuel tanks.
The electronic warfare systems include a radar warning receiver and automatic or manually operated chaff and flare dispensers.
The Hawk 200 is equipped with a Northrop Grumman APG-66H multi-mode radar, LINS 300 ring laser gyroscope inertial navigation system, air data sensor, display processor and mission computer. The systems are interconnected by dual redundant digital bus.
The radar has ten air-to-surface and ten air-to-ground modes for navigation fixing and weapon aiming.
The pilot has a hands-on throttle and stick (HOTAS) control system and a wide-field-of-view head-up display (HUD). The pilot can select the weapons and release mode prior to initiating an attack by using the weapon control panel, which controls the stores management system.
The cockpit has a colour display, with a dedicated processor and 15-colour graphics symbology generator. 27 display formats provide flight and aircraft data.
The Hawk 200 is powered by an Adour 871 twin-spool, low bypass ratio turbofan engine from Rolls-Royce. The flexible fuel tanks are installed in the fuselage and compartmented integral tanks are located in the wings. External tanks can also be carried on the in-board under-wing pylons.
The Hawk T1 (Trainer Mark 1) was the original version of the Hawk used by the RAF, deliveries commencing in November 1976. The RAF received a total of 175 T1s.
The Hawk T1A is a modified Hawk T1, intended to replace the Hawker Hunter in the RAF’s Tactical Weapons Units. A total of 89 aircraft were converted to carry two underwing AIM-9L Sidewinder air-to-air missiles and a centreline Aden gun pod. This is also the variant used by the RAF’s Red Arrows display team; the underbody gun pod is replaced by a fairing used to carry diesel fuel and dye for the display smoke system.
The Hawk 50 was the original export trainer version, and offered a limited attack capability. Finland, Indonesia and Kenya ordered 90 of this variant.
- Hawk 51 – Export version for the Finnish Air Force. 50 ordered December 1977, with first four to be built by British Aerospace and remaining aircraft assembled in Finland. Delivered December 1980 to September 1985.
- Hawk 51A – Seven Hawks were sold to Finland as part of a follow-on order. Powered by Adour 851 engine as used by Hawk 51, but with structural and wing modifications of later Hawks.
- Hawk 52 – Export version for the Kenyan Air Force. Fitted with braking parachute. Twelve ordered 9 February 1978, with deliveries from 1980 to 1981.
- Hawk 53 – Export version for the Indonesian Air Force. Eight ordered 4 April 1978, with five more ordered in May 1981, a further three in October 1981 and four in November 1982, giving a total of 20 delivered between 1980 and 1984. Five repurchased by BAE Systems in 1999.
Another export version, replacing the Hawk 50, intended for conversion and weapons training. Weapons carriage is increased. It is a two-seater, has uprated Rolls-Royce Adour 861 engines, and is capable of a level speed at altitude of 555 knots (1028 km/h) or Mach 0.84. The T-45 Goshawk was derived from this version.
- Hawk 60 – Export version for the Air Force of Zimbabwe. Fitted with braking parachute and provision for carrying a reconnaissance pod. Eight Hawks were ordered by Zimbabwe on 9 January 1981, and delivered between July and October 1982.
- Hawk 60A – Five Hawks were sold to Zimbabwe as part of a follow-on order in 1990. The aircraft were delivered between June and September 1992.
- Hawk 61 – Export version for Dubai, United Arab Emirates Air Force. Eight ordered 30 June 1981 for a price of $40 million and delivered March to September 1983. Single additional attrition replacement aircraft delivered 1988.
- Hawk 62 – Export version for Venezuela, order cancelled
- Hawk 63 – Export version for Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates Air Force. 16 purchased on 2 January 1983 for $180 million including spares and maintenance support. Delivery between October 1984 and May 1985.
- Hawk 63A – 15 Hawk 63s were upgraded to this standard from October 1991, with the Adour 871 engine and Advanced Combat Wing of the Hawk 100, with four underwing weapons pylons and wingtip missile rails, but retaining simpler avionics of Hawk 63.
- Hawk 63C – Four new build aircraft to Hawk 63A standard were sold to Abu Dhabi as part of a follow-on order and delivered from 1995.
- Hawk 64 – Export version for the Kuwait Air Force. Twelve ordered 31 October 1983 and delivered 1985 to 1986.
- Hawk 65 – Export version for the Royal Saudi Air Force. 30 ordered as part of Al Yamamah I arms deal in February 1986 with deliveries from August 1987 to October 1988.
- Hawk 65A – 20 were sold to Saudi Arabia as part of a follow-on order, to an improved standard, and delivered 1997.
- Hawk 66 – Export version for the Swiss Air Force. Twenty ordered on 20 October 1987, with first built by BAe and remaining 19 assembled by the Federal Aircraft Factory at Emmen. Delivery from November 1989 to October 1991.
- Hawk 67 – Export version for the Republic of Korea Air Force. Fitted with extended nose of Hawk 100 to accommodate avionics and a steerable nosewheel. Twenty ordered in July 1991, with delivery by November 1993.
A two-seat advanced weapons trainer with additional avionics, an optional forward-looking infrared camera, a redesigned wing and hands-on stick-and-throttle controls.
- Hawk 102 – Export version for Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates Air Force. Fitted with wingtip missile rails and Racal Prophet radar warning receiver (RWR). Eighteen ordered in 1989 and delivered between April 1993 and March 1994.
- Hawk 103 – Lead-in fighter trainer for the Royal Air Force of Oman. Fitted with FLIR and laser ranger in extended nose, BAE Sky Guardian RWR and wingtip AAM rails. Four were ordered on 30 July 1990 and delivered from December 1993 to January 1994.
- Hawk 108 – Export version for the Royal Malaysian Air Force. Fitted with BAE Sky Guardian RWR and wing tip AAM rails. Ten ordered December 1990, and delivered January 1994 to September 1995.
- Hawk 109 – Export version for the Indonesian Air Force. (8)
- Hawk 115 – Export version for the Canadian Forces, designated CT-155 Hawk in Canadian service.
- Hawk 129 – Export version for Royal Bahraini Air Force. (6)
The Hawk Lead-in Fighter Trainer (LIFT) is the version selected by the South African Air Force in December 1999. This variant is powered by the Adour 951. The LIFT benefits from development carried out for the Australian Mk. 127.
The next generation Hawks (120, 127 and 128) feature a new wing, forward and centre fuselage, fin and tailplane. The aircraft have only 10% commonality with the existing first generation aircraft. The new variants also have four times the fatigue life of the original aircraft. 24 aircraft will be delivered.
The Royal Australian Air Force ordered 33 Hawk 127 Lead-in Fighters (LIFs) in June 1997, 12 of which were produced in the UK and 21 in Australia. This variant is also powered by the Adour 871. The Hawk 127 is operated by the RAAF’s No. 76 Squadron and No. 79 Squadron which are based at RAAF Base Williamtown and RAAF Base Pearce respectively. Work to upgrade the RAAF’s Hawks to a standard similar to the Hawk 128 standard began in 2014, and it is planned that the two squadrons will begin operations with these aircraft in 2017.
Hawk 128 (Hawk T2)
The Hawk 128 is the new Advanced Jet Trainer (AJT) for the RAF and Royal Navy. The 128 includes modern LCD displays instead of conventional instrumentation and is powered by the Rolls-Royce Adour 951 engine. The Ministry of Defence awarded a Design and Development Contract to BAE Systems on 22 December 2004. The T2 builds on the design of the Australian Mk. 127 and the South African Mk. 120s.
In 2012 orders were placed for the AJT version by the Royal Saudi Air Force and the Royal Omani Air Force.
The Hawk Mk. 132 is an export variant of the Hawk and was previously known as the Mk. 115Y. BAE Systems delivered the final of 24 UK-built Hawks to the IAF in November 2009. HAL handed over the first locally-built Hawk 132 on 14 August 2008. These aircraft are powered by the Rolls-Royce Adour Mk 871 engine.
The Mk. 165 is an export variant of the AJT currently flown by the Royal Saudi Air Force. 22 aircraft were originally built in the UK by BAE with delivery completed in 2017, whilst another 22 aircraft are currently being built locally in Saudi Arabia with the first “locally built” aircraft delivered to the RSAF in June 2019 and a further 7 by October 2019.
The Hawk 200 is a single-seat, lightweight multi-role combat aircraft for air defence, air-denial, anti-shipping, interdiction, close air support, and ground attack.
- Hawk 203 – Export version for the Royal Air Force of Oman. (12)
- Hawk 205 – Proposed export version for the Royal Saudi Air Force.
- Hawk 208 – Export version for the Royal Malaysian Air Force. (18)
- Hawk 209 – Export version for the Indonesian Air Force. (32)
The Advanced Hawk is a joint venture by BAE Systems and Hindustan Aeronautics Limited; a single example of the aircraft was unveiled at the Aero India 2017 on 14 February 2017. It made its first flight in June 2017
Specifications (Hawk 128)
|Crew||2: student, instructor|
|Length||12.43 m (40 ft 9 in)|
|Wingspan||9.94 m (32 ft 7 in)|
|Height||3.98 m (13 ft 1 in)|
|Wing area||16.70 m2 (179.64 ft2)|
|Empty weight||4,480 kg (9,880 lb)|
|Max take off weight||9,100 kg (20,000 lb)|
|Power plant (Dry thrust)||1× Rolls-Royce Turbomeca Adour Mk. 951 turbofan with FADEC, 29 kN (6,500 lbf) 29 kN|
|Power plant (Thrust with afterburner)|
|Maximum speed (Sea level)|
|Maximum speed (High altitude)||Mach 0.84 (1,028 km/h, 638 mph) at altitude|
|Ferry range||2,520 km (1,360 nmi, 1,565 mi)|
|Service ceiling||13,565 m (44,500 ft)|
|Rate of climb||47 m/s (9,300 ft/min)|
|Design load factor|
|Armament||– 1× 30 mm ADEN cannon, in centreline pod
– Up to 6,800 lb (3,085 kg) of weapons on five hardpoints, including:
– 4× AIM-9 Sidewinder or ASRAAM or A-Darter on wing pylons and wingtip rails
– 2x Umbani or Al Tariq
– 1,500 lb (680 kg), limited to one centreline and two wing pylons (Hawk T1)
- Australian Air Force – 33 Hawk 127s.
- Royal Bahraini Air Force – 6 Hawk 129s.
- Royal Canadian Air Force – 17 Hawk 115s (CT-155).
- Finnish Air Force – 31 Hawks (8 Mk.51, 7 Mk.51A, 16 Mk.66).
- Indian Air Force – 106 Hawk 132s (total 123 ordered for IAF) as of 2015.
- Indian Navy – 17 Hawk 132s (6 additional yet to be delivered).
- Indonesian Air Force – 38 Hawk 53/109/209s.
- Kuwait Air Force – 10 Hawk 64s as of 2008.
- Royal Malaysian Air Force – 19 Hawk 108/208s.
- Royal Air Force of Oman – 15 Hawk 103/203s in service in 2008, 8 Hawk 166s on order of which 2 delivered in July 2017.
- Royal Saudi Air Force – 45 Hawk 65s. 22 Hawk 165s on order.
- South African Air Force – 24 Hawk 120s.
- United Kingdom
- Royal Air Force – 81 Hawk T1s/28 Hawk T2s.
- United Arab Emirates Air Force – 47 Hawk 61/63/102s delivered, 18 in service, 13 63A sold to Jordan.