The M1 Abrams is a third-generation American main battle tank designed by Chrysler Defense (now General Dynamics Land Systems). Conceived for modern armored ground warfare and now one of the heaviest tanks in service at nearly 68 short tons (almost 62 metric tons), it introduced several innovative features, including a multifuel turbine engine, sophisticated Chobham composite armor, a computer fire control system, separate ammunition storage in a blow-out compartment, and NBC protection for crew safety. Initial models of the M1 were armed with a licensed-produced 105 mm Royal Ordnance L7 gun, while later variants feature a licensed Rheinmetall 120 mm L/44.
M1 Abrams main battle tank is manufactured by General Dynamics Land Systems (GDLS). The first M1 tank was produced in 1978, the M1A1 in 1985 and the M1A2 in 1986.
The first M1 Abrams battle tanks were delivered to the US Army in 1980. A total of 3,273 M1 tanks were produced for the US Army, 4,796 M1A1 tanks were built for the US Army, 221 for the US Marines and 880 co-produced with Egypt.
For the M1A2 upgrade programme, more than 600 M1 Abrams tanks were upgraded to M1A2 configuration at the Lima Army tank plant between 1996 and 2001. Deliveries began in 1998.
M1A1 / M1A2 Abrams orders and deliveries
In March 2004, the Australian Army announced the purchase of 59 US Army M1A1 tanks to enter service from 2007. The contract was signed in November 2005 and the first five were handed over in February 2006 at GDLS in Lima, Ohio.
The first 18 tanks were delivered to the Australian Army at the School of Armour in Victoria in September 2006. The remaining 41, to be based in Darwin, were delivered in March 2007.
In June 2006, Saudi Arabia requested the foreign military sale of 58 M1A1 tanks and the upgrade of these and the 315 M1A2 already in the Saudi inventory to the M1A2S configuration. The upgrade involves rebuilding to a ‘like new’ condition, similar to the US Army Abrams integrated management programme (AIM).
In August 2007, Egypt requested the $1.32bn foreign military sale of an additional 125 M1A1 tanks, which would bring the country’s fleet to 1,005 M1A1 tanks.
Egypt also requested 125 M256 armament systems, 125 M2 50-calibre machine guns, 250 M240 7.62mm machine guns, 125 AGT-1500 M1A1 series tank engines and transmissions, and 120mm test cartridges. It also requested spare and repair parts, maintenance, support equipment, special tool and test equipment, personnel training and equipment, publications and technical documentation, as well as US government and contractor engineering and logistics support services.
GDLS was awarded a $349m contract in January 2008 for the production of 125 M1A1 tank kits under the tenth increment of the Egyptian co-production programme. Deliveries began in April 2009.
In July 2008, the Iraqi Government requested the sale of 140 M1A1 tanks to be upgraded to the M1A1M configuration. The Iraqi Army received the final shipment of five M1A1 Abrams tanks in August 2011.
In February 2009, the US Army TACOM life-cycle management command (TACOM LCMC) awarded GDLS a multiyear contract worth $81m to upgrade 30 M1 Abram tanks to M1A2 systems enhancement package version 2 (SEPv2) configuration.
In March 2009, the TACOM LCMC awarded a $33m contract to GDLS for long-lead materials to produce 140 M1A1 SA (situational awareness) tanks for the Iraq programme. The tanks are fitted with FLIR thermal site, tank urban survivability kit (TUSK) enhancements and a driver’s vision-enhancing thermal viewer.
A $45m contract was signed in July 2009 under the Egyptian tank co-production programme. As part of the contract, GDLS provided technical assistance and equipment to M1A1 tanks at the Egyptian tank plant.
Honeywell is improving the performance of the AGT 1500 engines of M1 Abrams tanks under a one-year extension contract awarded by the US Army in August 2009. The company worked with the army on the total integrated engine revitalisation (TIGER) programme of about 750 engines. The value of the fourth-year contract is around $300m, with the total contract value amounting to $1.4bn.
In October 2009, GDLS was awarded a $58m contract by the US Army for providing systems technical support (STS) for the Abrams tank.
In December 2009, GDLS received a $17.6m contract from Saudi Arabia for the purchase of long-lead materials used for converting 15 M1A2 Abrams tanks to M1A2S tanks.
The US Army TACOM LCMC awarded a $37m contract to GDLS in March 2010 for providing STS services for the Abrams tanks. The work includes identifying improvements and replacing obsolete parts of the tanks.
In February 2010, GDLS awarded $18m contract to Northrop Grumman to supply LRS-2000 rate sensor assembly units for the stabilised commander’s weapon station (SCWS) on the US Army M1A1 Abrams tank. The deliveries began in October 2011.
The sensor increases soldier safety and effectiveness in urban areas. It also enables soldiers to fire the tank’s machine gun from inside the armoured vehicle.
The US Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) awarded a $9.5m contract to GDLS for providing spares in support of Abrams battle tanks in April 2013. GDLS secured a $56m contract modification in September 2013 to continue logistics and basic life cycle-support services to M1A1 Abrams tanks in service with Iraqi forces. The contract related works were completed in October 2013.
The US Army TACOM LCMC, on behalf of the Royal Saudi Land Forces, awarded a $187.5m contract to GDLS in September 2013, to upgrade 44 M1A1 and 40 M1A2 Abrams tanks to the Saudi M1A2 (M1A2S) configuration.
GDLS received a $99.7m contract from the US Army TACOM LCMC on behalf of the Royal Saudi Land Forces for the procurement and production of Saudi M1A2 (M1A2S) Abrams
tanks. The contract awarded in December 2014, extends work started in 2008 to update M1A1 and M1A2 tanks to the M1A2S configuration.
The US Army TACOM LCMC on behalf of Morocco awarded a $358m contract to GDLS in September 2015 to refurbish and upgrade 150 M1A1 Abrams tanks to the M1A1 SA configuration, under FMS.
GDL won a $2.6bn contract from the US Army to upgrade up to 786 M1A1 Abrams to the newly configured M1A2 System Enhancement Package Version 3, in December 2017.
The US Government approved a potential sale of 108 M1A2T Abrams tanks and other equipment to Taiwan in July 2019.
M1A2 system enhancement package (SEP/SEP v2/SEP v3)
In February 2001, GDLS were contracted to supply 240 M1A2 tanks with a system enhancement package (SEP) by 2004. The M1A2 SEP contains an embedded version of the US Army’s Force XXI command and control architecture, new Raytheon commander’s independent thermal viewer (CITV) with second-generation thermal imager, commander’s display for digital colour terrain maps, DRS Technologies second-generation GEN II TIS thermal imaging gunner’s sight with increased range, driver’s integrated display and thermal management system.
The US Army decided to cancel future production of the M1A2 SEP from FY2004, but in June 2005 ordered the upgrade of a further 60 M1A2 tanks to the SEP configuration. A further 60 were ordered in August 2006, plus 180 in November 2006.
Under the firepower enhancement package (FEP), DRS Technologies was also awarded a contract for the GEN II TIS to upgrade US Marine Corps M1A1 tanks. GEN II TIS is based on the 480×4 SADA (standard advanced dewar assembly) detector.
The FEP also includes an eyesafe laser range finder, north-finding module and precision lightweight global positioning receiver, which provide targeting solutions for the new far target locate (FTL) function. FTL gives accurate targeting data to a range of 8,000m with a CEP (circular error of probability) of less than 35m.
In November 2007, General Dynamics was awarded a contract for the upgrade of 240 M1A2 SEP version one tanks to the version two configuration which has improved sights, displays and a tank-infantry phone. The first was ready in October 2008 and the work was completed in September 2009.
In 2008, Saudi Arabia awarded a $58m contract to GDLS to design, develop, convert, implement and test a hybrid configuration of the M1A1, M1A2 and M1A2 SEP tank variants.
In February 2008, General Dynamics was awarded a multiyear contract to upgrade to SEP Version Two (V2) configuration the remaining 435 M1A1 tanks in the US Army inventory. A $614m contract to upgrade 235 M1A1 Abrams main battle tanks to the SEP V2 configuration was awarded in August 2008.
In February 2014, GDLS received a $72.7m contract from the US Army TACOM LCMC to upgrade 12 M1A1 Abrams tanks to the M1A2 SEPV2 configuration. The contract was
awarded as part of the agreement signed in February 2008, which allows upgrade of 435 M1A1 tanks.
The US Army TACOM LCMC awarded a $49.7m contract to GDLS in February 2015 to upgrade M1A1 Abrams tanks to the M1A2 SEPv2 configuration. GDLS secured a $92.2m contract modification to upgrade M1A2 SEPv2 tanks to the M1A2 SEPv3 configuration in December 2015.
The US Army placed orders with GDLS for the upgrade of 100 M1A1 Abrams to M1A2 SEPv3 configuration in July 2018. The US Army has awarded a $714m contract to GDLS to upgrade 174 M1A1 Abrams tanks to M1A2 SEPv3 configuration in January 2019. The US Army has ordered more than three brigades of M1A2 SEPv3 tanks, taking the number of tanks ordered in 2018 to 274.
In June 2004, DRS Technologies was awarded a contract to provide systems including rugged appliqué computers for the M1A2 Abrams tanks (and M2A3 Bradley fighting vehicles) as part of the US Army’s Force XXI battle command, brigade and below (FBCB2) programme. FBCB2 is a digital battle command information system which provides enhanced interoperability and situational awareness from brigade to individual soldier that will be used in conjunction with the army’s tactical internet.
M1 Abrams main battle tank armament
The main armament is the 120mm M256 smoothbore gun, developed by Rheinmetall Waffe Munition GmbH of Germany. The 120mm gun fires the following ammunition – M865 TPCSDS-T and M831 TP-T training rounds, the M8300 HEAT-MP-T and the M829 APFSDS-T which includes a depleted uranium penetrator. Textron Systems provides the Cadillac Gage gun turret drive stabilisation system.
The commander has a 12.7mm Browning M2 machine gun and the loader has a 7.62mm M240 machine gun. A 7.62mm M240 machine gun is also mounted coaxially on the right-hand side of the main armament.
Depleted uranium armour
The M1A1 main battle tank incorporates steel-encased depleted uranium armour. Armour bulkheads separate the crew compartment from the fuel tanks.
The top panels of the tank are designed to blow outwards in the event of penetration by a HEAT projectile. The tank is protected against nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) warfare.
One L8A1 six-barrelled smoke grenade discharger is fitted on each side of the turret. A smoke screen can also be laid by an engine-operated system.
In August 2006, GDLS was awarded a contract to produce 505 tank urban survivability kits (TUSK) for the US Army Abrams tanks.
TUSK includes add-on reactive armour tiles, loader’s armour gun shield (LAGS), tank infantry phone (TIP), Raytheon loader’s thermal weapon sight with Rockwell Collins head-mounted display and BAE Systems thermal driver’s rear-view camera (DRVC). TUSK entered service on M1A1 / M1A2 tanks in late 2007 and was deployed to Iraq.
Australian M1A1 tanks are fitted with Saab Barracuda multispectral camouflage systems, which reduce the tank’s visual, radar and infra-red signature.
Fire control and observation
The commander’s station is equipped with six periscopes, providing a 360° view. The Raytheon commander’s independent thermal viewer (CITV) provides the commander with independent stabilised day and night vision with a 360° view, automatic sector scanning, automatic target cueing of the gunner’s sight and back-up fire control.
M1A2 Abrams tank has a two-axis Raytheon gunner’s primary sight – line of sight (GPS-LOS), which increases the first round hit probability by providing faster target acquisition and improved gun pointing.
The thermal imaging system (TIS) has a magnification of ×10 narrow field of view and ×3 wide field of view. The thermal image is displayed in the eyepiece of the gunner’s sight together with the range measurement from a laser range finder.
The Northrop Grumman (formerly Litton) Laser Systems eyesafe laser range finder (ELRF) has a range accuracy to within 10m and target discrimination of 20m. The gunner also has a Kollmorgen Model 939 auxiliary sight with magnification ×8 and field of view 8°.
The digital fire control computer is supplied by General Dynamics – Canada (formerly Computing Devices Canada).
The fire control computer automatically calculates the fire control solution based on the lead angle measurement, bend of the gun measured by the muzzle reference system, velocity measurement from a wind sensor on the roof of the turret and data from a pendulum static cant sensor located at the centre of the turret roof.Data on ammunition type, temperature and barometric pressure is manually inputted by the operator
The driver has either three observation periscopes or two periscopes on either side and a central image intensifying periscope for night vision. The periscopes provide 120° field of view.
The DRS Technologies driver’s vision enhancer (DVE), AN/VSS-5, is based on a 328×245 element uncooled infra-red detector array, operating in the 7.5 to 13 micron waveband. A Raytheon driver’s thermal viewer, AN/VAS-3, is installed on the M1A2 Abrams tanks for Kuwait.
The M1 is equipped with a Honeywell AGT 1500 gas turbine engine. The Allison X-1100-3B transmission provides four forward and two reverse gears.
The US Army has selected Honeywell International Engines and Systems and General Electric to develop a new LV100-5 gas turbine engine for the M1A2. The new engine is lighter and smaller with rapid acceleration, quieter running and no visible exhaust.
Variants and upgrades
- XM1-FSED: Preproduction test model. Eleven Full-Scale Engineering Development test bed vehicles were produced in 1977–78. These vehicles were also called Pilot Vehicles and numbered PV-1 through PV-11.
- M1: First production variant. Production began (at Chrysler) in 1979 and continued to 1985 (at General Dynamics) (3,273 built for the US). The first 110 tanks were Low Rate Initial Production (LRIP) models, still called XM1s, because they were built prior to the tank being type-classified as the M1.
- M1IP (Improved Performance): Produced briefly in 1984 before the M1A1, contained upgrades and reconfigurations like new turret with thicker frontal armor, new turret is referred as “long” turret instead of older “short” turret, armor upgraded from ~650mm line of sight thickness to ~880mm (894 built for US).
- M1A1: Production started in 1985 and continued to 1992, pressurized NBC system, rear bustle rack for improved stowage of supplies and crew belongings, redesigned blow-off panels and M256 120 mm smoothbore cannon (4,976 built for the U.S. Army, 221 for USMC, 59 M1A1 AIM SA sold to Australia).
- M1A1HA (Heavy Armor): Added 1st generation depleted uranium armor components. Some tanks were later upgraded with 2nd generation depleted uranium armor components, and are unofficially designated M1A1HA+.
- M1A1HC (Heavy Common): Added new 2nd generation depleted uranium armor components, digital engine control and other small upgrades common between Army and Marine Corps tanks.
- M1A1D (Digital): A digital upgrade for the M1A1HC, to keep up with M1A2 SEP, manufactured in quantity for only 2 battalions.
- M1A1 AIM v.1 (Abrams Integrated Management): A program whereby older units are reconditioned to zero hour conditions; and the tank is improved by adding Forward-Looking Infra-Red (FLIR) and Far Target Locate sensors, a tank-infantry phone, communications gear, including FBCB2 and Blue Force Tracking to aid in crew situational awareness, and a thermal sight for the .50 caliber machine gun.
- M1A1 AIM v.2/M1A1 SA (Situational Awareness): Upgrades similar to AIM v.1 tanks + new 3rd generation depleted uranium armor components. Configuration for the Royal Moroccan Army, which is almost identical to the Australian variant, except exportable turret armor is installed by General Dynamics Land System to replace the DU armor.
- M1A1 FEP (Firepower Enhancement Package): Similar upgrade to AIM v.2 for USMC tanks.
- M1A1KVT (Krasnovian Variant Tank): M1A1s that have been visually modified to resemble Soviet-made tanks for use at the National Training Center, fitted with MILES gear and a Hoffman device.
- M1A1M: An export variant ordered by the Iraqi Army with depleted uranium armor removed and older thermal imaging system with lower resolution used.
- M1A1 (AIDATS upgrade): Upgrade-only variant to all USMC General Dynamics M1A1 Abrams tanks to improve the tank commander’s situational awareness with an upgraded thermal sight, color day camera, and a stationary color display.
- M1A2 (Baseline): Production began in 1986 and entered service in 1992 (77 built for the U.S. and more than 600 M1s upgraded to M1A2, 315 for Saudi Arabia, 1,005 for Egypt, 218 for Kuwait). The M1A2 offers the tank commander an independent thermal sight and ability to, in rapid sequence, shoot at two targets without the need to acquire each one sequentially, also 2nd generation depleted uranium armor components.
- M1A2 SEP (System Enhancement Package): Has upgraded third-generation depleted uranium armor components with graphite coating (240 new built, 300 M1A2s upgraded to M1A2 SEP for the US, also unknown numbers of upgraded basic M1s and M1IPs, also 400 oldest M1A1s upgraded to M1A2 SEP).
- M1A2S (Saudi Package): Saudi Arabian variant upgrade of the M1A2 based on M1A2 SEP, with some features, such as depleted uranium armor, believed to be missing and replaced by special armor. (442 M1A2s upgraded to M1A2S).
- M1A2 SEPv2: Added Common Remotely Operated Weapon Station as standard, color displays, improved interfaces, a new operating system, improved front and side armor with ERA (TUSK kit), tank-infantry phone as standard, and an upgraded transmission for better durability.
- M1A2C (SEPv3): Has increased power generation and distribution, better communications and networking, new Vehicle Health Management System (VHMS) and Line Replaceable Modules (LRMs) for improved maintenance, an Ammunition DataLink (ADL) to use airburst rounds, improved counter-IED armor package, improved FLIR using long- and mid-wave infrared, a low-profile CROWS RWS, Next Generation Armor Package (NGAP), and an Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) under armor to run electronics while stationary instead of the engine, visually distinguishing the version by a small exhaust at the left rear. More passive ballistic protection added to the turret faces, along with new Explosive Reactive Armor mountings (Abrams Reactive Armor Tile (ARAT)) and Trophy Active Protection systems added to the turret sides. Prototypes began testing in 2015, and the first were delivered in October 2017. The first unit received them in July 2020.
- M1A2T: Special configuration variant of the M1A2C reportedly being offered for sale to Taiwan as of March 2019 and approved by US State Department as of July 2019. Per DSCA statement, it is roughly equivalent to M1A2C, except depleted uranium armor is replaced by FMS export armor. There is no mention of the Trophy APS system. The new-built tanks will be produced at Anniston Army Depot, Anniston, Alabama, and the Joint Systems Manufacturing Center, Lima, Ohio.
- M1A2D (SEPv4): Under engineering development with delivery planned to start by 2021. The Commander’s Primary Sight, also known as the Commander’s Independent Thermal Viewer, and Gunner’s Primary Sight will be upgraded with 3rd Gen FLIR, an improved laser rangefinder and color cameras. Additional improvements will include advanced meteorological sensors, laser warning/detection receivers, directional smoke grenade launchers and integration of the new XM1147 multi-purpose (AMP) 120mm tank round. The AN/VVR-4 laser warning receiver and ROSY rapid obscurant system have been trialed by the US Army for adoption on the Abrams tank and Bradley fighting vehicle.
- M1A2-K: Under development, unique variant for the Kuwaiti Army, slated to replace Kuwait’s current M1A2 fleet.
- M1A3: Under research development as of 2014. Improvements are to include a lighter 120 mm gun, added road wheels with improved suspension, a more durable track, lighter-weight armor, long-range precision armaments, and infrared camera and laser detectors. The variant is believed to have a new diesel engine, instead of the gas turbine engine used in previous M1 variants.
- M1 TTB (Tank Test Bed): Prototype with unmanned turret, 3 crew members in armored capsule in front of the heavy armored hull, main armament was 120 mm smoothbore gun, M256 derivative or modification, mechanical loading system under turret, never fielded.
- CATTB: The Component Advanced Technology Test Bed was an experimental model with a lightweight 120 mm smoothbore cannon, heavy armored turret and upgraded hull based on the M1 chassis. It had a mechanical loading system in turret bustle, a new engine and probably other upgrades, never fielded. The tank went into trials in 1987–88.
- M1 Thumper: Experimental variant by Lockheed Martin, equipped with the 140 mm XM291 ATACS smoothbore cannon. Similar to the CATTB, it included a larger, elongated turret to offer protection levels comparable to the M1A2 while allowing the mounting of the larger cannon and its longer ammunition. Cancelled with the end of the Cold War, and never fielded.
- M1 AGDS (Air Ground Defense System): Proposed air defence variant of the Abrams equipped with dual 35 mm Bushmaster III autocannons, 12 ADATS missiles and advanced electro-optical and radar targeting systems derived from the ADATS. It was supposed to be capable of both air defence and anti-tank purposes with the ADATS MIM-146 missiles which was a dual purpose ATGM/SAM. The proposal never saw consideration and was never developed further.
- M1 Grizzly Combat Mobility Vehicle (CMV).
- M1 Panther II: A remote controlled mine clearing vehicle with turret removed, mine rollers on front, and the Standardized Teleoperation System.
- M104 Wolverine Heavy Assault Bridge
- M1074 Joint Assault Bridge (JAB): Bridgelayer combining a heavy “scissor” bridge with the M1 Abrams chassis. Expected to reach low-rate initial production in 2019 to replace the M60 AVLB and M104 Wolverine.
- M1150 Assault Breacher Vehicle (ABV): Assault variant for the USMC. Based upon the M1A1 Abrams chassis, the Assault Breacher Vehicle has a variety of systems installed, such as a full-width mine plow, two linear demolition charges, and a lane-marking system. Reactive armor has been fitted to the vehicle providing additional protection against High-explosive anti-tank warhead-based weapons. The turret has been replaced by a new smaller one with two MICLIC launchers at its rear. A M2HB .50 machine gun in a remote weapons station is mounted on the commander’s cupola and a bank of grenade launchers are fitted to each side of the superstructure to cover the frontal arc for self-protection.
- M1 Armored Recovery Vehicle: Only a prototype produced.
|Produced||1979–85||1984||1985–92||1992 on||1999 on|
|Length||32.04 ft (9.77 m)|
|Width||12 ft (3.7 m)|
|Height||7.79 ft (2.37 m)||8.0 ft (2.4 m)|
|Top speed||45 mph (72 km/h)||41.5 mph (66.8 km/h)||42 mph (68 km/h)|
|Range||310 mi (500 km)||275 mi (443 km)||288 mi (463 km)||265 mi (426 km)||264 mi (425 km)|
|Power||1,500 shp (1,100 kW)|
|Weight||61.4 short tons (55.7 t)||62.8 short tons (57.0 t)||M1A1: 61.5 short tons (55.8 t)M1A1 SA: 67.6 short tons (61.3 t)||68.4 short tons (62.1 t)||SEP v1: 69.5 short tons (63.0 t) SEP v2: 71.2 short tons (64.6 t)
M1A2C (SEP v3): 73.6 short tons (66.8 t)
|Main armament||105 mm M68A1 rifled||120 mm M256A1 smoothbore|
|Crew||4 (commander, gunner, loader, driver)|
|Protection||Chobham armor||Longer turret for thicker composite array||M1A1: BRL-2 composite armor
M1A1HA/HC/M1A2: Depleted uranium inserts in frontal turret arrays
M1A1 AIM/SA: Depleted uranium inserts in hull and turret
|Depleted uranium inserts in hull and turret
Improved Chobham armor and increased turret armor
- Australian Army – 59 M1A1 (AIM) configuration tanks (hybrids with a mix of equipment used by U.S. Army and U.S. Marine Corps but without depleted uranium layers in armor). These tanks were bought from the U.S. in 2006 and replaced the Leopard AS1 in 2007. As of 2017, the Australian Government was considering expanding the Army’s fleet of Abrams to 90 tanks. In 2016, Lieutenant General Angus Campbell stated that the Australian army may upgrade its current M1A1 fleet to the M1A2C under LAND 907 Phase 2.
- Egyptian Army – 1,360 M1A1 tanks assembled in Egypt for the Egyptian army in cooperation with the U.S. (without depleted uranium layers)
- Iraqi Army: 140 M1A1Ms (without depleted uranium layers in armor). Iraq was leasing 22 U.S. Army M1A1s for training in 2008.] The first 11 tanks were delivered to the Iraqi Army in August 2010 with all deliveries completed by August 2011. In October 2012, it was reported that six more tanks were being delivered. Zaloga wrote that four battalions of the 9th Armoured Division were equipped with M1s by 2014: 1st and 2nd of the 34th Brigade, and 4th and 5th of the 35th Brigade.
- Kuwaiti Army – 218 M1A2s (without depleted uranium layers in armor)-
- Saudi Arabian Army: 373 Abrams tanks, To be upgraded to M1A2S configuration in Saudi Arabia. 69 more M1A2S tanks ordered on 8 January 2013, to be delivered by 31 July 2014.
- Royal Moroccan Army – 222 M1A1 SA (situational awareness) tanks ordered in 2015. Deliveries under the contract started in July 2016 with an estimated completion date of February 2018. The contract include 150 refurbished and upgraded tanks to the special armor configuration. Morocco took delivery of the first batch of M1A1SAs on 28 July 2016. A Foreign Military Sale for 162 M1A2Ms was approved by the US State Department in November 2018 and sent to Congress for final approval.
- United States Army – Have received over 8,100 M1, M1A1 and M1A2 tanks combined. 1,605 M1A2SEPv2 and 750 M1A1 SA in active service. 34+ M1A2C in testing. 3,300 M1A1/A2 in storage.