T-35 Pillan is a basic trainer aircraft designed and developed by Empresa Nacional de Aeronáutica de Chile (ENAER) for the Chilean and Spanish Air Forces. Approximately 154 Pillans were built between 1984 and 1991.
Production of the T-35 was suspended in 1991 and resumed again in November 1998.
T-35 basic trainer aircraft variants
The T-35 Pillan has eight variants, namely the T-35A Aucan, T-35B, T-35C, T-35D, T-35DT, T-35S, T-35T Aucan and Pillan 2000.
The T-35A Aucan is a turboprop version, deployed by the Chilean Air Force (FACh) for primary training missions. The variation was the first production aircraft and completed its maiden flight in December 1984. T-35B is an advanced two-seater version, principally used for instrument flying missions.
The T-35C is a Spanish model and is also known as the E.26 Tamiz. It was assembled in Spain by EADS CASA. The aircraft took off for its maiden flight in May 1986.
The T-35D is a meliorated version which carries out primary and instrument flight training for the Panama and Paraguay Air Forces respectively.
The T-35DT is powered by Allison 250-B17D turboprop engine rated at 313kW of output power. The variation is also designated as T-35XT. The T-35S is a single-seat aerobatic aircraft which took off for its maiden flight in March 1988.
The T-35T Aucan is an upgraded turboprop model. Pillan 2000 is an improved version with an extended wingspan.
Design and development of the T-35 Pillan
The T-35 has a low wing monoplane design. It was designed by modifying the PA-28R-300 Pillan military trainer aircraft. The modifications included supplanting the Piper PA-28R-300’s fuselage with a Saratoga fuselage, comprising a new centre-section and stressed wings for aerobatic applications. The tricycle type retractable undercarriage allows the aircraft to execute hard landings even in hostile conditions.
The development of the T-35 began in March 1979 with the requirement of the FACh to supersede the existing fleet of T-34 Mentor trainers. Two prototypes were built by the Piper Aircraft Company (PAC).
The first prototype (XBT) took off for its maiden flight in March 1981. The maiden flight of the second prototype (YBT) took place in August 1981. XBT was delivered to ENAER in January 1982 for assembly in Chile. Three pre-production aircraft were manufactured by ENAER in 1982.
ENAER commenced series production of the T-35 in September 1984. The first T-35 was delivered to FACh in July 1985 and inducted into service in August 1985. ENAER started supplying T-35C kits to Spain in December 1985.
The T-35 Pillan was showcased at the FIDAE Air Show held in April 2002.
Cockpit, armaments and engine of ENAER’s T-35 Pillan trainer aircraft
The T-35 features a spacious cockpit enclosed with a bubble-shaped glass canopy. The aircraft boasts two cockpits to carry two flight crew, a trainee pilot and flight instructor in a tandem seat configuration. It is optionally integrated with an air conditioning system to sustain constant temperature in the cockpit.
The cockpit is equipped with two KX165 voice over recorders, KR 87 automatic direction finder, Garmin 150 GPS, KDI 572 master indicator, KDI 573 slave indicator, KI 525A horizontal situational indicator, KN 63 transmitter-receiver, KR 21 Marker Beacon receiver and KT 76A transponder.
The Pillan has two hardpoints under the wing pylons to carry up to 500kg of weaponry payload.
The T-35 Pillan is powered by a single Avco Lycoming IO-540-K1K5 six cylinder air-cooled horizontally opposed engine rated at 224kW of maximum output power. It is fitted with a three-bladed variable pitch, constant speed Hartzell HC-C3YR-4BFR propeller which rotates at the rate of 2,700rpm.
The engine features a RSA-10ED1 fuel injection system, ALU-8421-LS alternator, REM38E spark plug, LW-16471 starter ring gear, electric engine starter, magneto and hydraulic pump drive.
The diameter of the propeller varies from 1.95m to 1.98m. The dry weight of the engine is 212kg.
Performance of the Chilean and Spanish Air Forces’ aircraft
The T-35 can climb at the rate of 7.7m/s. The never-exceed and maximum speeds of the aircraft are 412km/h and 311km/h respectively.
The cruise speed is 266km/h. The stall speed is 115km/h. The range and service ceiling are 1,204km and 5,820m respectively.
The T-35 can climb at the rate of 7.7m/s. The never exceed and maximum speeds of the aircraft are 412km/h and 311km/h respectively. The cruise speed is 266km/h. The stall speed is 115km/h. The range and service ceiling are 1,204km and 5,820m respectively.
|Length||8 m (26 ft 3 in)|
|Wingspan||8.84 m (29 ft 0 in)|
|Height||2.64 m (8 ft 8 in)|
|Wing area||13.69 m2 (147.4 sq ft)|
|Empty weight||930 kg (2,050 lb)|
|Max take off weight||1,338 kg (2,950 lb)|
|Power plant (Dry thrust)
||224 kW (300 hp)|
|Power plant (Thrust with afterburner)
|Maximum speed (Sea level)
||311 km/h (193 mph, 168 kn)|
|Maximum speed (High altitude)|
||1,093 km (679 mi, 590 nmi)|
||5,840 m (19,160 ft)|
|Rate of climb||7.75 m/s (1,526 ft/min)|
|Wing loading||97.73 kg/m2 (20.02 lb/sq ft)|
- Chilean Air Force – operates 31 aircraft as of 2017.
- Dominican Air Force – operates four aircraft as of 2017.
- Ecuadorian Navy – operates three as of 2017.
- Air Force of El Salvador – operates three as of 2017.
- Guatemalan Air Force – operates four as of 2017.
- National Air and Naval Service of Panama – operates four as of 2017.
- Paraguayan Air Force – operates 9 as of 2017.
- Spanish Air Force – ordered 41, operates 35 as of 2017.